Grades  How to use grading with formulas
Grading formulas allow you to assess students on their score on multiple grade items.
This article shows how to:
Creating a formula grade item
Navigate to your course, in the green navigation bar
 Click on Grades
 Click on Manage Grades
 Click on New
 Select Item
This will redirect you to the Next Item page,
 Click on Formula
On the next page, you can define the settings of the formula grade item:
 Give a name to the grade item
 Define the Maximum Points of the grade item (in case a 110 decimal grade scheme the maximum value should be 10)
 Click on Save if you wants to save the changes and continue working on this page
OR
 Click on Save and Close to save the changes and be redirect to the Manage Grades page
Creating a grading formula
To create a grading formula for a Formula Grade item or Final Calculated Grade, open the grade item from the Manage Grades,
 Click on [Edit Using the Formula Editor]
This will redirect you to a Formula Editor page:
The formula editor opens in a new window. Here, you can assemble your grading formula using the editor:
 Every equation start with an equal sign (=). This cannot be deleted
 The cursors can be used to move within the editor. The arrows on your physical keyboard can be used for the same purpose (note, that these functions might not work in Mozilla Firefox browser). The cursor placements options are:
 [<<] Move cursor to the start of the formula
 [<] Move cursor back one element
 [>] Move cursor forward one element
 [>>] Move cursor to the end of the formula

Validate to check the formula for errors:
 If the formula is valid, it displays the confirmation message: Formula validated successfully
 If the formula is invalid, there will be an error message and the formula shows the item that caused the error with the fault highlighted in red
 Preview to preview students' grades using the current formula. If the formula is invalid, the preview option does not work
The Grade Item sections has two drop down menus,
 Select a Grade Item to add a grade item to the formula. In the drop down menu you can select any item from you course

Points Received determines the value you want to associate to the grade item:
 Points Received: the grades achieved by students (this is the commonly used value)
 Max Points: the maximum points available for the grade item
 Percent: the percentage of the grade achieved by the student
 Insert to add grade items to the formula
The formula does not take into account category and grade item weight
Dropped grade items and bonus grade items are calculated the same way as other grade items
In the Function section,

Select a Function to choose from the following formulas:
 MAX: returns the largest number in a set of grade items, i.e.: MAX{1,2,3,4,5}=5
 MIN: returns the smallest number in a set of grade items, i.e.: MIN{1,2,3,4,5}=1
 SUM: returns the sum of a set of grade items, i.e.: SUM{1,2,3,4,5}=15
 AVG: returns the average (arithmetic mean) of a set of grade items, i.e.: AVG{1,2,3,4,5}=3

IF: operates as a Boolean statement. You must define the condition (Boolean statement), true value, and false value, i.e.: IF{logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false}
 For example: IF{[Example Grade Item. Points Received] >= 5.5, [Example Grade Item. Points Received], 0} Explanation: If the Example Grade Item is larger or equal to 5.5, the formula will return the actual value of the grade item, otherwise it will return zero (0).

NOT: an addition to a Boolean statement where the output value is true when the condition is false, and false if the condition is true. Cannot be used without other functions
 For example: NOT{[Quiz Week 1. Percent] = 10}, 0, 10}
 Start to start a function with an open bracket symbol, i.e.: "MAX{"
 Next Term to separates grade items or parts of Boolean statement with a comma ","
 End to end a function with a closing bracket '}'
On the bottom right of the Formula Editor, there is a desktop keyboard that can be used to build the formula
 Backspace button deletes the element left of the cursor
 Clear button deletes the entire formula
Examples of grading scenarios
Case: the course has an exam, a tutorial, and a paper. The exam and paper need to be 5.5 minimum before passing the course. For the final grade the tutorial is 10%, the paper 50%, and the exam 40%. An additional correction can be subtracted based on student participation in the tutorial.
 The IF condition has been reversed here: instead of checking if the grades are above 5.5 it will check if they are below it. This is so that the code for partially completed is at the beginning of the formula, as only the final part will be edited in the future when the composition of the final grade is changed
 A similar IFfunction can be used with the MAX, where if the MAX of the set is below 5.5, a final grade will be calculated and shown with a grade below 6, as a partially completed usually indicates parts of the course have been finished satisfactory.
Case: the course consists of a written exam, project work, and a separate module. The written exam consists of 5 parts. Students can opt to take a resit of these parts if they want to, with the highest grade counting for the final grade. Of this, the average is calculated.
The project is Example 1: it consists of three practicals and a separate module. The practicals count for 80% combined, the separate module for 20%. The weights for the practicals is 50% for Practical 1, 30% for Practical 2, and 20% for Practical 3.
Additionally, there is a check to make sure all tests individually are also a 5.0 minimum
All these items are combined with an extra item that checks whether a student has a single grade between 5.0 and 5.5, which is allowed for this course. The final grade calculation is as follows:
Possible Errors
The following are errors you might encounter while using the Formula Editor:
Error  Description  Example  Correction 

Unexpected [token_type] For example, Unexpected operator 
The formula contains a function component in an unexpected location  = 5=/1 = (5+1)2 
Correct the equation = 5/1 = (5+1)*2 
Unbalanced parentheses  The formula contains an opening or closing bracket without a corresponding bracket  = 5+1)  Remove bracket = 5+1 
Missing end of function  The formula contains an unclosed function  = SUM{[Item1.Point],[Item2/Points]  Close the function (add curly bracket at the end) = SUM{[Item1.Points],[Item2.Points]} 
Unexpected function end  The formula contains a closing bracket for a function that does not relate to a function  =[Item1.Points]/2}  Remove curly bracket = [Item1.Points]/2 
Invalid number of operator parameters  The formula contains an invalid number of operator parameters  = [Item1.Points] +  Add parameter or remove operator = [Item1.Points] + [Item2.Points] 
Invalid number of function parameters  The formula contains an invalid number of function parameters  = SUM{} = IF{[Item1.Points] < 2,5} 
Insert correct number of parameters For SUM, at least 2 For IF, at least 3 
Numeric value expected  A Boolean statement or operator was entered in place of a numeric value  = IF{MIN{4,5},100, 0} = NOT{4} 
Enter Boolean = IF {MIN{4,5}> 5,100,0} 
Invalid terminal  The formula contains an incorrectly used terminal  = [Item1.Points] + 3.2.5  Remove the errors =[Item1.Points] + 3.2 
Now you know how to use grading formulas in Brightspace!
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